WG5 members’ empirical studies, and recognised frameworks including the European Cyber Security Body of Knowledge (CyBOK), IEEE guidelines, European Joint Research Centre (JRC), ENISA reports and European Cybersecurity Framework (ECSF) , and ECSO papers, among other state-of-the-art resources and working-life practices. CyBOK  is a total of 19 comprehensive Knowledge Areas (KAs) to inform and underpin education and professional training for the cybersecurity sector. The minimum reference curriculum also uses EU Member States’ working-life recommendations, best practices and successful case studies.
The minimum reference curriculum provides a unified and common understanding between different parties involved in cybersecure societies, broad understanding and common language for cybersecurity within Europe and its working-life communities. The guideline adopts an evidence-based competence framework and structure which is presented in the minimum reference curriculum. It includes the subject name, brief subject description, subject content and topics, learning outcomes, and potential job roles/career paths.